Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding
Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding

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Breastmilk

Water
Carbohydrates (energy source)
   Lactose
   Oligosaccharides (see below)
Carboxylic acid
   Alpha hydroxy acid
      Lactic acid
Proteins (building muscles and bones)
   Whey protein
      Alpha-lactalbumin
         HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumour cells)
      Lactoferrin
      Many antimicrobial fact    ors (see below)
   Casein
   Serum albumin
Non-protein nitrogens
   Creatine
   Creatinine
   Urea
   Uric acid
   Peptides (see below)
   Amino Acids (the building blocks of proteins)
      Alanine
      Arginine
      Aspartate
      Clycine
      Cystine
      Glutamate
      Histidine
      Isoleucine
      Leucine
      Lycine
      Methionine
      Phenylalanine
      Proline
      Serine
      Taurine
      Theronine
      Tryptophan
      Tyrosine
      Valine
      Carnitine (amino acid compound necessary to make use of
         fatty acids as an energy source)
   Nucleotides (chemical compounds that are the structural units of RNA and DNA)
      5'-Adenosine monophosphate (5"-AMP)
      3':5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (3':5'-cyclic AMP)
      5'-Cytidine monophosphate (5'-CMP)
      Cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP choline)
      Guanosine diphosphate (UDP)
      Guanosine diphosphate - mannose
      3'- Uridine monophosphate (3'-UMP)
      5'-Uridine monophosphate (5'-UMP)
      Uridine diphosphate (UDP)
      Uridine diphosphate hexose (UDPH)
      Uridine diphosphate-N-acetyl-hexosamine (UDPAH)
      Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA)
      Several more novel nucleotides of the UDP type
Fats
   Triglycerides
      Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
         Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
            (important for brain development)
         Arachidonic acid (AHA) (important for brain development)
         Linoleic acid
         Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
         Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
         Conjugated linoleic acid (Rumenic acid)
      Free Fatty Acids
      Monounsaturated fatty acids
         Oleic acid
         Palmitoleic acid
         Heptadecenoic acid
      Saturated fatty acids
         Stearic
         Palmitic acid
         Lauric acid
         Myristic acid
   Phospholipids
      Phosphatidylcholine
      Phosphatidylethanolamine
      Phosphatidylinositol
      Lysophosphatidylcholine
      Lysophosphatidylethanolamine
      Plasmalogens
   Sphingolipids
      Sphingomyelin
      Gangliosides
         GM1
         GM2
         GM3
      Glucosylceramide
      Glycosphingolipids
      Galactosylceramide
      Lactosylceramide
      Globotriaosylceramide (GB3)
      Globoside (GB4)
   Sterols
      Squalene
      Lanosterol
      Dimethylsterol
      Methosterol
      Lathosterol
      Desmosterol
      Triacylglycerol
      Cholesterol
      7-dehydrocholesterol
      Stigma-and campesterol
      7-ketocholesterol
      Sitosterol
      β-lathosterol
      Vitamin D metabolites
      Steroid hormones
Vitamins
   Vitamin A
   Beta carotene
   Vitamin B6
   Vitamin B8 (Inositol)
   Vitamin B12
   Vitamin C
   Vitamin D
   Vitamin E
      a-Tocopherol
   Vitamin K
   Thiamine
   Riboflavin
   Niacin
   Folic acid
   Pantothenic acid
   Biotin
Minerals
   Calcium
   Sodium
   Potassium
   Iron
   Zinc
   Chloride
   Phosphorus
   Magnesium
   Copper
   Manganese
   Iodine
   Selenium
   Choline
   Sulpher
   Chromium
   Cobalt
   Fluorine
   Nickel
Metal
   Molybdenum (essential element in many enzymes)
Growth Factors (aid in the maturation of the intestinal lining)
   Cytokines
      interleukin-1β (IL-1β)
      IL-2
      IL-4
      IL-6
      IL-8
      IL-10
      Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)
      Macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)
      Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF)
      Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
      Hepatocyte growth factor -α (HGF-α)
   HGF-β
      Tumor necrosis factor-α
      Interferon-γ
      Epithelial growth factor (EGF)
      Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)
      TGF β1
      TGF-β2
      Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)
         (also known as somatomedin C)
      Insulin-like growth factor- II
      Nerve growth factor (NGF)
   Erythropoietin
   Peptides (combinations of amino acids)
      HMGF I (Human growth factor)
      HMGF II
      HMGF III
      Cholecystokinin (CCK)
      β-endorphins
      Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
      Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)
      β-defensin-1
      Calcitonin
      Gastrin
      Motilin
      Bombesin (gastric releasing peptide, also known as neuromedin B)
      Neurotensin
      Somatostatin
   Hormones (chemical messengers that carry signals from one cell,
         or group of cells, to another via the blood)
      Cortisol
      Triiodothyronine (T3)
      Thyroxine (T4)
      Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (also known as thyrotropin)
      Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH)
      Prolactin
      Oxytocin
      Insulin
      Corticosterone
      Thrombopoietin
      Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
      GRH
      Leptin (aids in regulation of food intake)
      Ghrelin (aids in regulation of food intake)
      Adiponectin
      Feedback inhibitor of lactation (FIL)
      Eicosanoids
         Prostaglandins (enzymatically derived from fatty acids)
            PG-E1
            PG-E2
            PG-F2
         Leukotrienes
         Thromboxanes
         Prostacyclins
Enzymes (catalysts that support chemical reactions in the body)
   Amylase
   Arysulfatase
   Catalase
   Histaminase
   Lipase
   Lysozyme
   PAF-acetylhydrolase
   Phosphatase
   Xanthine oxidase
Antiproteases (thought to bind themselves to macromolecules such as
         enzymes and as a result prevent allergic and anaphylactic reactions)
      a-1-antitrypsin
      a-1-antichymotrypsin
Antimicrobial factors (are used by the immune system to identify
      and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses.
   Leukocytes (white blood cells)
      Phagocytes
         Basophils
         Neutrophils
         Eoisinophils
      Macrophages
      Lymphocytes
         B lymphocytes (also known as B cells)
         T lymphocytes (also known as C cells)
   sIgA (Secretory immunoglobulin A)
         (the most important antiinfective factor)
   IgA2
   IgG
   IgD
   IgM
   IgE
   Complement C1
   Complement C2
   Complement C3
   Complement C4
   Complement C5
   Complement C6
   Complement C7
   Complement C8
   Complement C9
   Glycoproteins
         Mucins (attaches to bacteria and viruses to prevent them from
            clinging to mucousal tissues)
      Lactadherin
   Alpha-lactoglobulin
   Alpha-2 macroglobulin
   Lewis antigens
   Ribonuclease
   Haemagglutinin inhibitors
   Bifidus Factor (increases growth of Lactobacillus bifidus
      - which is a good bacteria)
   Lactoferrin (binds to iron which prevents harmful bacteria from
      using the iron to grow)
   Lactoperoxidase
   B12 binding protein (deprives microorganisms of vitamin B12)
   Fibronectin (makes phagocytes more aggressive, minimizes inflammation,
      and repairs damage caused by inflammation)
   Oligosaccharides (more than 200 different kinds!)

Formula

Water
Carbohydrates
   Lactose
   Corn maltodextrin
Protein
   Partially hydrolyzed reduced minerals whey protein concentrate (from cow's milk)
Fats
   Palm olein
   Soybean oil
   Coconut oil
   High oleic safflower oil (or sunflower oil)
   M. alpina oil (Fungal DHA)
   C.cohnii oil (Algal ARA)
Minerals
   Potassium citrate
   Potassium phosphate
   Calcium chloride
   Tricalcium phosphate
   Sodium citrate
   Magnesium chloride
   Ferrous sulphate
   Zinc sulphate
   Sodium chloride
   Copper sulphate
   Potassium iodide
   Manganese sulphate
   Sodium selenate
Vitamins
   Sodium ascorbate
   Inositol
   Choline bitartrate
   Alpha-Tocopheryl acetate
   Niacinamide
   Calcium pantothenate
   Riboflavin
   Vitamin A acetate
   Pyridoxine hydrochloride
   Thiamine mononitrate
   Folic acid
   Phylloquinone
   Biotin
   Vitamin D3
   Vitamin B12
Enzyme
   Trypsin
Amino acid
   Taurine
   L-Carnitine (a combination of two different amino acids)
Nucleotides
   Cytidine 5-monophosphate
   Disodium uridine 5-monophosphate
   Adenosine 5-monophosphate
   Disodium guanosine 5-monophosphate
Soy Lecithin

Developed as a student project for the Breastfeeding Course for Health Care Providers, Douglas College, New Westminster, BC, Canada -
© 2007 by Cecily Heslett, Sherri Hedberg and Haley Rumble.
 


   30 April, 2012
 
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